impacts in more developed countries:
addiction to fossil fuels:
What a chance have the "North"
countries! Kitchen fully equipped with all necessary
appliances: refrigerator, freezer, dishwasher,
oven, cooker, microwave, mini-oven, coffee maker,
deep fryer, toaster, steamer. ..
But all this material, beyond
the footprint of its manufacturing, will consume
energy during its lifetime. Thus a European
will depend on more of 80% of fossil fuels for
cooking their food, directly or indirectly by
consuming electricity or gas.
In the form of gas or electricity, the consumption
of these energy releases into the astmosphère
a certain amount of Co2 and also a certain amount
of radioactive waste in nature. All can be estimated
with the following datas:
Click on image to enlarge
1 kWh of UK electricity grid is equivalent
in 2004 to 0,454708 kg of Co2, but this assessment
takes into account only the production and not the
entire cycle of power plants (wind, nuclear, oil etc...)
and nuclear energy is considered without Co2 emissions
More recently, studies are talking about
an average of 66 grams of Co2 emitted per kilowatt hour
for nuclear energy taking into account the full cycle
of operation of all plants (Source: "Study
Benjamin K." Guide). We know that the electricity
production in UK is shared as follow: 28% coal, 4% fuel,
38% gas, 25% nuclear, 2% dam, 3% others, so 1 kWh
in UK is equivalent to 0,98356 kg of Co2.
In order to compare, the European average
is 0,651339074 kg of Co2 per kWh and 0,561804887 kg
Click on image to enlarge
1 kWh of natural gas is equivalent
in 2007 to:
0,231023102 kg of Co2 (Source: Guide
1 kWh of GPL is equivalent in 2010 to: 0,260 kg of
of kWh and cost of cooking with electricity:
For decades, electricity consumption
per household devoted to cooking is increasing,
it has been multiplied by 5 between 1970 and 2010
according to data from ADEME and INSEE. The CWAPE
estimate to 175 kWh the electrical energy necessary
for one year of cooking for one person (plates
and oven only). Knowing that the family size
in UK is 2,4 people, it is possible to estimate
the electricity consumption for a UK household:
2,4 * 175 = 420 kWh per year per household cooking
However, ADEME takes into account
all small appliances (toaster, kettle ...) and
estimates the total electricity consumption for
cooking in a French household with quite the same
familly size to 568 kWh / year (Source: PA Guide
ADEME). By choosing the latter estimate, the electricity
bill is about € 61 for a French household including
VAT, subscription not included. (Source: EDF
2009: Price of 1 kWh: € 0.1078 TTC.
Basic subscription: € 66.82 including VAT for
3 kVA). It'll be more expensive for UK and Germany.
of kWh and cost of cooking with gas:
We have to know before all that
bottled gas (butane, propane) are actually Liquefied
Petroleum Gas and town gas is Natural Gas. There
are two different fuels, which have different
equivalencies in kWh/m3.
It can be seen around us, that a
British familly (2.4 people) equipped with an
oven and a gas stove, consumes around three cylinders
of 13 kg per year. According to Butagaz
2010 data, the average price of a bottle of
gas is € 25.5 without tax deposit. According to
Committee of Butane and Propane, butane contains
13.7 kWh per kg. Therefore we can calculate the
3 * 13 * 13.7 = 534.3 kWh per
year and per UK familly cooking with bottled gas.
3 * 25.5 = € 76.5 VAT included per year and per
UK familly cooking with bottled gas.
gas (or natural gas):
Town gas, according to data from
GDF (2005), for a minimum service subscription,
gas cost in France: € 0.06937 / kWh VAT included.
The subscription for consumption below 1000 kWh
/ year is 25 € TTC / year. If we consider egal
kWh consumption for bottled gas and city gas,
we can estimate the following figures:
(534.3 * 0.06937) = 37 € VAT
included, subscription not included per year and
per UK familly cooking with gas.
of Co2 emissions by one UK familly per year:
568 kWh/an * 0,98356 kg de Co2
= 559 kg of Co2 / Year and per UK Familly
cooking with electricity
534,3 kWh/an * 0,231023102 kg de Co2 =
123 kg Co2 / Year and per UK Familly cooking
with natural gas
534,3 kWh/an * 0,260 kg de Co2 = 139
kg Co2 / Year and per UK Familly cooking with
In times of crisis, fossil fuel
prices tend to decline following the decline
of demand, but the general trend about 9% per
year for gas and 2% for electricity (at the
regulated price in France). Note that the regulated
price is condemned to disappear little by little
and the price of electricity will increase as
dramatic as gas price (Source: Poweo).
A large family can payback in
a few years its investment in solar cooking
material using sun to cook dishes which require
a lot of energy (cakes, steam potatoes...).
For a family of 5 people, the annual bill for
electricity and / or cooking gas will be between
80 and 130 € including VAT but excluding
Cooking impacts in less developed countries:
Click on image to enlarge
An inhabitant of the African continent
consumes each day to cook his food between
1 and 1.5 kg of wood according to FAO,
compounding deforestation and desertification
in some areas already sensitive. In addition,
the collection of wood is a very hard
work and which need a lot of time of walking.
Beyond that, smoke cause each year many
health problems for populations.
The "south" countries are also
the main consumers of charcoal, and the
manufacturing process is similar in "north"
and "south" countries . According to datas
provided by the manufacturer, to produce
1 kg of charcoal BBQ, you must burn 5
to 7 kg of green wood! (Source: GBMF).
If you want to do BBQ, but you do not
have AlSol, find the origin of your coal!
Africa, or recycling waste from local
wood industries labelised FSC?
The calculation of impacts is easy to
do, knowing that a family in the African
continent is composed of an average of
6 persons and FAO said that each person
need 1,25 kg of wood:
6 * 1,25 = 7,5 kg of
wood per day per household in Africa
7,5 * 365 = 2 737,5 kg of wood per year
per household in Africa
Most of wood burning mass contain: 80%
organic matter composed of atoms: 50%
carbon 43% oxygen, 5% hydrogen, 2% nitrogen.
2% of minerals and 18% of water (non-combustible,
they form the ashes).
Knowing that 12 grams of carbon produced
by burning 44 grams of carbon dioxide,
we can perform the following calculations:
50% carbon * 80% organic
400 grams of carbon emitted per kg of
400 g of carbon * 44 g
Co2 / 12 g of carbon=
1, 47 kg of Co2 emitted per kg of wood
kg of wood * 1.47 kg of Co2 =
4 024.125 kg of Co2 per year per household